Base Sequence is The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Betaine is A naturally occurring compound that has been of interest for its role in osmoregulation. As a drug, betaine hydrochloride has been used as a source of hydrochloric acid in the treatment of hypochlorhydria. Betaine has also been used in the treatment of liver disorders, for hyperkalemia, for homocystinuria, and for gastrointestinal disturbances. or From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1341
Bioprinting is A material transfer technique used for assembling biological material or cells into a prescribed organization to create functional structures such as MICROCHIP ANALYTICAL DEVICES, cell microarrays, or three dimensional anatomical structures.
Catalogs as Topic is Ordered compilations of item descriptions and sufficient information to afford access to them.
Centralized Hospital Services is The coordination of services in one area of a facility to improve efficiency.
Chickenpox is A highly contagious infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus or HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN. It usually affects children, is spread by direct contact or respiratory route via droplet nuclei, and is characterized by the appearance on the skin and mucous membranes of successive crops of typical pruritic vesicular lesions that are easily broken and become scabbed. Chickenpox is relatively benign in children, but may be complicated by pneumonia and encephalitis in adults. or From Dorland, 27th ed
Chlamydophila is A genus of the family CHLAMYDIACEAE comprising gram-negative non CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS-like species infecting vertebrates. Chlamydophila do not produce detectable quantities of glycogen. The type species is CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI.
Chlamydophila Infections is Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDOPHILA.
Clinical Laboratory Information Systems is Information systems, usually computer-assisted, designed to store, manipulate, and retrieve information for planning, organizing, directing, and controlling administrative and clinical activities associated with the provision and utilization of clinical laboratory services.
Clothing is Fabric or other material used to cover the body.
Color Perception Tests is Type of vision test used to determine COLOR VISION DEFECTS.
Computer-Aided Design is The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.
Containment of Biohazards is Provision of physical and biological barriers to the dissemination of potentially hazardous biologically active agents or bacteria, viruses, recombinant DNA, etc.. Physical containment involves the use of special equipment, facilities, and procedures to prevent the escape of the agent. Biological containment includes use of immune personnel and the selection of agents and hosts that will minimize the risk should the agent escape the containment facility.
Criminal Law is A branch of law that defines criminal offenses, regulates the apprehension, charging and trial of suspected persons, and fixes the penalties and modes of treatment applicable to convicted offenders.
Data Interpretation, Statistical is Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Decontamination is The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Diaper Rash is A type of irritant dermatitis localized to the area in contact with a diaper and occurring most often as a reaction to prolonged contact with urine, feces, or retained soap or detergent.
Diapers, Adult is Absorbent pads designed to be worn as underpants or pants liners by adults.
Diapers, Infant is Absorbent pads designed to be worn by infants and very young children.
Diarrhea is An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
DNA Contamination is The presence of DNA from a source foreign to the sample being analysed.
DNA Polymerase II is A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3′-5′ exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 126.96.36.199.
DNA Primers is Short sequences or generally about 10 base pairs of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
DNA, Bacterial is Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase is DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Education is Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Electrophoresis, Capillary is A highly-sensitive or in the picomolar range, which is 10,000-fold more sensitive than conventional electrophoresis and efficient technique that allows separation of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and CARBOHYDRATES. or Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992
Encephalitis, Varicella Zoster is Inflammation of brain tissue caused by infection with the varicella-zoster virus or HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN. This condition is associated with immunocompromised states, including the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME. Pathologically, the virus tends to induce a vasculopathy and infect oligodendrocytes and ependymal cells, leading to CEREBRAL INFARCTION, multifocal regions of demyelination, and periventricular necrosis. Manifestations of varicella encephalitis usually occur 5-7 days after onset of HERPES ZOSTER and include HEADACHE; VOMITING; lethargy; focal neurologic deficits; FEVER; and COMA. or From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch 26, pp29-32; Hum Pathol 1996 Sep;27or 9
Feces is Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
GC Rich Sequence is A nucleic acid sequence that contains an above average number of GUANINE and CYTOSINE bases.
Gene Expression Profiling is The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Genetic Markers is A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Hematologic Tests is Tests used in the analysis of the hemic system.
Hepacivirus is A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Hepatitis A is INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.
Hepatitis B is INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Hepatitis C is INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Hepatitis C Antibodies is Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Hepatitis C, Chronic is INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Herpes Genitalis is Infection of the genitals or GENITALIA with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
Herpes Simplex is A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. or Dorland, 27th ed.
Herpes Zoster is An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus or HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. or From Dorland, 27th ed
Herpesvirus 3, Human is The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX or varicella and HERPES ZOSTER or shingles in humans.
Indicators and Reagents is Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. or From Grant & Hackh’s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499
Insulin is A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production or GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A or 21 residues and B or 30 residues, linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1.
Internet is A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Ion-Selective Electrodes is Electrodes which can be used to measure the concentration of particular ions in cells, tissues, or solutions.
Isotope Labeling is Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Jaundice, Neonatal is Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting or PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.
Laboratory Infection is Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.
Laryngeal Masks is A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
Ligase Chain Reaction is A DNA amplification technique based upon the ligation of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES. The probes are designed to exactly match two adjacent sequences of a specific target DNA. The chain reaction is repeated in three steps in the presence of excess probe
Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes is A vocabulary database of universal identifiers for laboratory and clinical test results. Its purpose is to facilitate the exchange and pooling of results for clinical care, outcomes management, and research. It is produced by the Regenstrief Institute. or LOINC and RELMA [Internet]. Indianapolis
Mass Media is Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message
Microbiology is The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.
Microsatellite Repeats is A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats or STRs.
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques is MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.
Molecular Sequence Data is Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory or EMBL, National Biomedical Research Foundation or NBRF, or other sequence repositories.
Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction is Methods for using more than one primer set in a polymerase chain reaction to amplify more than one segment of the target DNA sequence in a single reaction.
Neuroendocrine Cells is Specialized NEURONS that produce hormones, such as NEUROPEPTIDES or BIOGENIC AMINES. They generally are in the NERVOUS SYSTEM, such as HYPOTHALAMUS, but can be found in other organs or systems. These neurons contain dense neurosecretory granules and PROPROTEIN CONVERTASES allowing the rapidly release of NEUROHORMONES into the blood circulation upon stimulation.
Newspapers is Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion or as editorials and letters, features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. or Webster’s 3d ed
Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques is Laboratory techniques that involve the in-vitro synthesis of many copies of DNA or RNA from one original template.
Occult Blood is Chemical, spectroscopic, or microscopic detection of extremely small amounts of blood.
Operating Rooms is Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Pathology Department, Hospital is Hospital department which administers and provides pathology services.
Periodicals as Topic is A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Pharyngitis is Inflammation of the throat or PHARYNX.
Plasmodesmata is Membrane-like channels of cytoplasm connecting adjacent plant cells. Plasmodesmata connect through pores in the CELL WALL and associate with the CYTOSKELETON machinery. They are essential for intercellular transport and communication.
Polymerase Chain Reaction is In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences or primers. The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Preservatives, Pharmaceutical is Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.
Proteomics is The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins or PROTEOME of organisms.
Questionnaires is Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data – clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Reagent Kits, Diagnostic is Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction is Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction is A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
RNA, Messenger is RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3′ end, referred to as the polyor A tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
RNA, Viral is Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Schools, Medical is Educational institutions for individuals specializing in the field of medicine.
Sensitivity and Specificity is Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. or From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed
Sequence Analysis, DNA is A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Software is Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Spheniscidae is The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
Streptococcus pyogenes is A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Teaching Materials is Instructional materials used in teaching.
Templates, Genetic is Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.
Terminology as Topic is The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
Urogenital Neoplasms is Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.