Anti-human gene antibody


Antibody Research
Antibody Research
Antibodies Immunoglobulin Molec
ules Having A Specific Amino Acid Sequence By Virtue Of Which They Interact Only With The Antigen Or Or A Very Similar Shape That Induced Their Synthesis In Cells Of The Lymphoid Series Or Especially Plasma Cells.
Antibody Specificity The Property Of Antibodies Which Enables Them To React With Some Antigenic Determinants And Not With Others. Specificity Is Dependent On Chemical Composition, Physical Forces, And Molecular Structure At The Binding Site.
Antibodies, Viral Immunoglobulins Produced In Response To Viral Antigens.
Antibodies, Bacterial Immunoglobulins Produced In A Response To Bacterial Antigens.
Antibodies, Monoclonal Antibodies Produced By A Single Clone Of Cells.
Antibody Formation The Production Of Antibodies By Proliferating And Differentiated B-Lymphocytes Under Stimulation By Antigens.
Antibodies, Neutralizing Antibodies That Reduce Or Abolish Some Biological Activity Of A Soluble Antigen Or Infectious Agent, Usually A Virus.
Antibody Affinity A Measure Of The Binding Strength Between Antibody And A Simple Hapten Or Antigen Determinant. It Depends On The Closeness Of Stereochemical Fit Between Antibody Combining Sites And Antigen Determinants, On The Size Of The Area Of Contact Between Them, And On The Distribution Of Charged And Hydrophobic Groups. It Includes The Concept Of “Avidity,” Which Refers To The Strength Of The Antigen-Antibody Bond After Formation Of Reversible Complexes.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique Test For Tissue Antigen Using Either A Direct Method, By Conjugation Of Antibody With Fluorescent Dye Or Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct Or An Indirect Method, By Formation Of Antigen-Antibody Complex Which Is Then Labeled With Fluorescein-Conjugated Anti-Immunoglobulin Antibody Or Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. The Tissue Is Then Examined By Fluorescence Microscopy.
Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Which React With The Individual Structural Determinants Or Idiotopes On The Variable Region Of Other Antibodies.
Binding Sites, Antibody Local Surface Sites On Antibodies Which React With Antigen Determinant Sites On Antigens Or Epitopes. They Are Formed From Parts Of The Variable Regions Of Fab Fragments.
HIV Antibodies Antibodies Reactive With Hiv Antigens.
Epitopes Sites On An Antigen That Interact With Specific Antibodies.
Antibodies, Neoplasm Immunoglobulins Induced By Antigens Specific For Tumors Other Than The Normally Occurring Histocompatibility Antigens.
Antibodies, Protozoan Immunoglobulins Produced In A Response To Protozoan Antigens.
Antibodies, Antinuclear Autoantibodies Directed Against Various Nuclear Antigens Including Dna, Rna, Histones, Acidic Nuclear Proteins, Or Complexes Of These Molecular Elements. Antinuclear Antibodies Are Found In Systemic Autoimmune Diseases Including Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, Sjogren’S Syndrome, Scleroderma, Polymyositis, And Mixed Connective Tissue Disease.
Cross Reactions Serological Reactions In Which An Antiserum Against One Antigen Reacts With A Non-Identical But Closely Related Antigen.
Immunoglobulin M A Class Of Immunoglobulin Bearing Mu Chains Or Immunoglobulin Mu-Chains. Igm Can Fix Complement. The Name Comes From Its High Molecular Weight And Originally Being Called A Macroglobulin.
Autoantibodies Antibodies That React With Self-Antigens Or Autoantigens Of The Organism That Produced Them.
Antibodies, Fungal Immunoglobulins Produced In A Response To Fungal Antigens.
Neutralization Tests The Measurement Of Infection-Blocking Titer Of Antisera By Testing A Series Of Dilutions For A Given Virus-Antiserum Interaction End-Point, Which Is Generally The Dilution At Which Tissue Cultures Inoculated With The Serum-Virus Mixtures Demonstrate Cytopathology Or Cpe Or The Dilution At Which 50% Of Test Animals Injected With Serum-Virus Mixtures Show Infectivity Or Id50 Or Die Or Ld50.
Antigen-Antibody Reactions The Processes Triggered By Interactions Of Antibodies With Their Antigens.
Antibodies, Bispecific Antibodies, Often Monoclonal, In Which The Two Antigen-Binding Sites Are Specific For Separate Antigenic Determinants. They Are Artificial Antibodies Produced By Chemical Crosslinking, Fusion Of Hybridoma Cells, Or By Molecular Genetic Techniques. They Function As The Main Mediators Of Targeted Cellular Cytotoxicity And Have Been Shown To Be Efficient In The Targeting Of Drugs, Toxins, Radiolabeled Haptens, And Effector Cells To Diseased Tissue, Primarily Tumors.
Molecular Sequence Data Descriptions Of Specific Amino Acid, Carbohydrate, Or Nucleotide Sequences Which Have Appeared In The Published Literature And/Or Are Deposited In And Maintained By Databanks Such As Genbank, European Molecular Biology Laboratory Or Embl, National Biomedical Research Foundation Or Nbrf, Or Other Sequence Repositories.
Single-Chain Antibodies A Form Of Antibodies Consisting Only Of The Variable Regions Of The Heavy And Light Chains Or Fv Fragments, Connected By A Small Linker Peptide. They Are Less Immunogenic Than Complete Immunoglobulin And Thus Have Potential Therapeutic Use.
Mice, Inbred BALB C
Antibodies, Blocking Antibodies That Inhibit The Reaction Between Antigen And Other Antibodies Or Sensitized T-Lymphocytes Or E.G., Antibodies Of The Immunoglobulin G Class That Compete With Ige Antibodies For Antigen, Thereby Blocking An Allergic Response. Blocking Antibodies That Bind Tumors And Prevent Destruction Of Tumor Cells By Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes Have Also Been Called Enhancing Antibodies. Or Rosen Et Al., Dictionary Of Immunology, 1989
Amino Acid Sequence The Order Of Amino Acids As They Occur In A Polypeptide Chain. This Is Referred To As The Primary Structure Of Proteins. It Is Of Fundamental Importance In Determining Protein Conformation.
Immunoglobulin G The Major Immunoglobulin Isotype Class In Normal Human Serum. There Are Several Isotype Subclasses Of Igg, For Example, Igg1, Igg2A, And Igg2B.
Antigen-Antibody Complex The Complex Formed By The Binding Of Antigen And Antibody Molecules. The Deposition Of Large Antigen-Antibody Complexes Leading To Tissue Damage Causes Immune Complex Diseases.
Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments Univalent Antigen-Binding Fragments Composed Of One Entire Immunoglobulin Light Chain And The Amino Terminal End Of One Of The Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains From The Hinge Region, Linked To Each Other By Disulfide Bonds. Fab Contains The Immunoglobulin Variable Regions, Which Are Part Of The Antigen-Binding Site, And The First Immunoglobulin Constant Regions. This Fragment Can Be Obtained By Digestion Of Immunoglobulins With The Proteolytic Enzyme Papain.
Antibodies, Heterophile Antibodies Elicited In A Different Species From Which The Antigen Originated. These Antibodies Are Directed Against A Wide Variety Of Interspecies-Specific Antigens, The Best Known Of Which Are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher Or H-D, And Paul-Bunnell Or P-B. Incidence Of Antibodies To These Antigens–I.E., The Phenomenon Of Heterophile Antibody Response–Is Useful In The Serodiagnosis, Pathogenesis, And Prognosis Of Infection And Latent Infectious States As Well As In Cancer Classification.
Antibodies, Catalytic Antibodies That Can Catalyze A Wide Variety Of Chemical Reactions. They Are Characterized By High Substrate Specificity And Share Many Mechanistic Features With Enzymes.
Rabbits The Species Oryctolagus Cuniculus, In The Family Leporidae, Order Lagomorpha. Rabbits Are Born In Burrows, Furless, And With Eyes And Ears Closed. In Contrast With Hares, Rabbits Have 22 Chromosome Pairs.
Immunoglobulin A Represents 15-20% Of The Human Serum Immunoglobulins, Mostly As The 4-Chain Polymer In Humans Or Dimer In Other Mammals. Secretory Iga Or Immunoglobulin A, Secretory Is The Main Immunoglobulin In Secretions.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized Antibodies From Non-Human Species Whose Protein Sequences Have Been Modified To Make Them Nearly Identical With Human Antibodies. If The Constant Region And Part Of The Variable Region Are Replaced, They Are Called Humanized. If Only The Constant Region Is Modified They Are Called Chimeric. Inn Names For Humanized Antibodies End In -Zumab.
Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect A Form Of Fluorescent Antibody Technique Commonly Used To Detect Serum Antibodies And Immune Complexes In Tissues And Microorganisms In Specimens From Patients With Infectious Diseases. The Technique Involves Formation Of An Antigen-Antibody Complex Which Is Labeled With Fluorescein-Conjugated Anti-Immunoglobulin Antibody. Or From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia Of Laboratory Medicine And Technology, 1984
Hybridomas Cells Artificially Created By Fusion Of Activated Lymphocytes With Neoplastic Cells. The Resulting Hybrid Cells Are Cloned And Produce Pure Monoclonal Antibodies Or T-Cell Products, Identical To Those Produced By The Immunologically Competent Parent Cell.
Immune Sera Serum That Contains Antibodies. It Is Obtained From An Animal That Has Been Immunized Either By Antigen Injection Or Infection With Microorganisms Containing The Antigen.
Epitope Mapping Methods Used For Studying The Interactions Of Antibodies With Specific Regions Of Protein Antigens. Important Applications Of Epitope Mapping Are Found Within The Area Of Immunochemistry.
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid Autoantibodies Directed Against Phospholipids. These Antibodies Are Characteristically Found In Patients With Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Or Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic;, Antiphospholipid Syndrome; Related Autoimmune Diseases, Some Non-Autoimmune Diseases, And Also In Healthy Individuals.
Immunization Deliberate Stimulation Of The Host’S Immune Response. Active Immunization Involves Administration Of Antigens Or Immunologic Adjuvants. Passive Immunization Involves Administration Of Immune Sera Or Lymphocytes Or Their Extracts Or E.G., Transfer Factor, Immune Rna Or Transplantation Of Immunocompetent Cell Producing Tissue Or Thymus Or Bone Marrow.
Antigens Substances That Are Recognized By The Immune System And Induce An Immune Reaction.
Immunoenzyme Techniques Immunologic Techniques Based On The Use Of
Cell Line Established Cell Cultures That Have The Potential To Propagate Indefinitely.
Antigens, Bacterial Substances Elaborated By Bacteria That Have Antigenic Activity.
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay An Immunoassay Utilizing An Antibody Labeled With An Enzyme Marker Such As Horseradish Peroxidase. While Either The Enzyme Or The Antibody Is Bound To An Immunosorbent Substrate, They Both Retain Their Biologic Activity; The Change In Enzyme Activity As A Result Of The Enzyme-Antibody-Antigen Reaction Is Proportional To The Concentration Of The Antigen And Can Be Measured Spectrophotometrically Or With The Naked Eye. Many Variations Of The Method Have Been Developed.
Antigens, Surface Antigens On Surfaces Of Cells, Including Infectious Or Foreign Cells Or Viruses. They Are Usually Protein-Containing Groups On Cell Membranes Or Walls And May Be Isolated.
Immunization, Passive Transfer Of Immunity From Immunized To Non-Immune Host By Administration Of Serum Antibodies, Or Transplantation Of Lymphocytes Or Adoptive Transfer.
Recombinant Proteins Proteins Prepared By Recombinant Dna Technology.
Blotting, Western Identification Of Proteins Or Peptides That Have Been Electrophoretically Separated By Blot Transferring From The Electrophoresis Gel To Strips Of Nitrocellulose Paper, Followed By Labeling With Antibody Probes.
Immunoassay A Technique Using Antibodies For Identifying Or Quantifying A Substance. Usually The Substance Being Studied Serves As Antigen Both In Antibody Production And In Measurement Of Antibody By The Test Substance.
Immunoglobulin Fragments Partial Immunoglobulin Molecules Resulting From Selective Cleavage By Proteolytic Enzymes Or Generated Through Protein Engineering Techniques.
Molecular Weight The Sum Of The Weight Of All The Atoms In A Molecule.
Immunohistochemistry Histochemical Localization Of Immunoreactive Substances Using Labeled Antibodies As Reagents.
Antigens, Viral Substances Elaborated By Viruses That Have Antigenic Activity.
Immunoblotting Immunologic Method Used For Detecting Or Quantifying Immunoreactive Substances. The Substance Is Identified By First Immobilizing It By Blotting Onto A Membrane And Then Tagging It With Labeled Antibodies.
Radioimmunoassay Classic Quantitative Assay For Detection Of Antigen-Antibody Reactions Using A Radioactively Labeled Substance Or Radioligand Either Directly Or Indirectly To Measure The Binding Of The Unlabeled Substance To A Specific Antibody Or Other Receptor System. Non-Immunogenic Substances Or E.G., Haptens Can Be Measured If Coupled To Larger Carrier Proteins Or E.G., Bovine Gamma-Globulin Or Human Serum Albumin Capable Of Inducing Antibody Formation.
Cells, Cultured Cells Propagated In Vitro In Special Media Conducive To Their Growth. Cultured Cells Are Used To Study Developmental, Morphologic, Metabolic, Physiologic, And Genetic Processes, Among Others.
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis In Which A Polyacrylamide Gel Is Used As The Diffusion Medium.
B-Lymphocytes Lymphoid Cells Concerned With Humoral Immunity. They Are Short-Lived Cells Resembling Bursa-Derived Lymphocytes Of Birds In Their Production Of Immunoglobulin Upon Appropriate Stimulation.
Complement Fixation Tests Serologic Tests Based On Inactivation Of Complement By The Antigen-Antibody Complex Or Stage 1. Binding Of Free Complement Can Be Visualized By Addition Of A Second Antigen-Antibody System Such As Red Cells And Appropriate Red Cell Antibody Or Hemolysin Requiring Complement For Its Completion Or Stage 2. Failure Of The Red Cells To Lyse Indicates That A Specific Antigen-Antibody Reaction Has Taken Place In Stage 1. If Red Cells Lyse, Free Complement Is Present Indicating No Antigen-Antibody Reaction Occurred In Stage 1.
Hemagglutination Tests Sensitive Tests To Measure Certain Antigens, Antibodies, Or Viruses, Using Their Ability To Agglutinate Certain Erythrocytes. Or From Stedman, 26Th Ed
Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests Serologic Tests In Which A Known Quantity Of Antigen Is Added To The Serum Prior To The Addition Of A Red Cell Suspension. Reaction Result Is Expressed As The Smallest Amount Of Antigen Which Causes Complete Inhibition Of Hemagglutination.
Antibodies, Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Autoantibodies Directed Against Cytoplasmic Constituents Of Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes And/Or Monocytes. They Are Used As Specific Markers For Granulomatosis With Polyangiitis And Other Diseases, Though Their Pathophysiological Role Is Not Clear. Anca Are Routinely Detected By Indirect Immunofluorescence With Three Different Patterns
Immunoglobulin Variable Region That Region Of The Immunoglobulin Molecule That Varies In Its Amino Acid Sequence And Composition, And Comprises The Binding Site For A Specific Antigen. It Is Located At The N-Terminus Of The Fab Fragment Of The Immunoglobulin. It Includes Hypervariable Regions Or Complementarity Determining Regions And Framework Regions.
Seroepidemiologic Studies Epidemiologic Studies Based On The Detection Through Serological Testing Of Characteristic Change In The Serum Level Of Specific Antibodies. Latent Subclinical Infections And Carrier States Can Thus Be Detected In Addition To Clinically Overt Cases.
Immunoglobulin Idiotypes Unique Genetically-Controlled Determinants Present On Antibodies Whose Specificity Is Limited To A Single Group Of Proteins Or E.G., Another Antibody Molecule Or An Individual Myeloma Protein. The Idiotype Appears To Represent The Antigenicity Of The Antigen-Binding Site Of The Antibody And To Be Genetically Codetermined With It. The Idiotypic Determinants Have Been Precisely Located To The Immunoglobulin Variable Region Of Both Immunoglobin Polypeptide Chains.
T-Lymphocytes Lymphocytes Responsible For Cell-Mediated Immunity. Two Types Have Been Identified – Cytotoxic Or T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic And Helper T-Lymphocytes Or T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer. They Are Formed When Lymphocytes Circulate Through The Thymus Gland And Differentiate To Thymocytes. When Exposed To An Antigen, They Divide Rapidly And Produce Large Numbers Of New T Cells Sensitized To That Antigen.
Immunologic Techniques Techniques Used To Demonstrate Or Measure An Immune Response, And To Identify Or Measure Antigens Using Antibodies.
Antigens, Neoplasm Proteins, Glycoprotein, Or Lipoprotein Moieties On Surfaces Of Tumor Cells That Are Usually Identified By Monoclonal Antibodies. Many Of These Are Of Either Embryonic Or Viral Origin.
Base Sequence The Sequence Of Purines And Pyrimidines In Nucleic Acids And Polynucleotides. It Is Also Called Nucleotide Sequence.
Immunosorbent Techniques Techniques For Removal By Adsorption And Subsequent Elution Of A Specific Antibody Or Antigen Using An Immunosorbent Containing The Homologous Antigen Or Antibody.
Haptens Small Antigenic Determinants Capable Of Eliciting An Immune Response Only When Coupled To A Carrier. Haptens Bind To Antibodies But By Themselves Cannot Elicit An Antibody Response.
Antibody Diversity The Phenomenon Of Immense Variability Characteristic Of Antibodies. It Enables The Immune System To React Specifically Against The Essentially Unlimited Kinds Of Antigens It Encounters. Antibody Diversity Is Accounted For By Three Main Theories
Cattle Domesticated Bovine Animals Of The Genus Bos, Usually Kept On A Farm Or Ranch And Used For The Production Of Meat Or Dairy Products Or For Heavy Labor.
Peptide Library A Collection Of Cloned Peptides, Or Chemically Synthesized Peptides, Frequently Consisting Of All Possible Combinations Of Amino Acids Making Up An N-Amino Acid Peptide.
Hepatitis C Antibodies Antibodies To The Hepatitis C Antigens Including Antibodies To Envelope, Core, And Non-Structural Proteins.
Isoantibodies Antibodies From An Individual That React With Isoantigens Of Another Individual Of The Same Species.
Immunoglobulin Isotypes The Classes Of Immunoglobulins Found In Any Species Of Animal. In Man There Are Nine Classes That Migrate In Five Different Groups In Electrophoresis; They Each Consist Of Two Light And Two Heavy Protein Chains, And Each Group Has Distinguishing Structural And Functional Properties.
Flow Cytometry Technique Using An Instrument System For Making, Processing, And Displaying One Or More Measurements On Individual Cells Obtained From A Cell Suspension. Cells Are Usually Stained With One Or More Fluorescent Dyes Specific To Cell Components Of Interest, E.G., Dna, And Fluorescence Of Each Cell Is Measured As It Rapidly Transverses The Excitation Beam Or Laser Or Mercury Arc Lamp. Fluorescence Provides A Quantitative Measure Of Various Biochemical And Biophysical Properties Of The Cell, As Well As A Basis For Cell Sorting. Other Measurable Optical Parameters Include Light Absorption And Light Scattering, The Latter Being Applicable To The Measurement Of Cell Size, Shape, Density, Granularity, And Stain Uptake.
Immunoglobulins Multi-Subunit Proteins Which Function In Immunity. They Are Produced By B Lymphocytes From The Immunoglobulin Genes. They Are Comprised Of Two Heavy Or Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains And Two Light Chains Or Immunoglobulin Light Chains With Additional Ancillary Polypeptide Chains Depending On Their Isoforms. The Variety Of Isoforms Include Monomeric Or Polymeric Forms, And Transmembrane Forms Or B-Cell Antigen Receptors Or Secreted Forms Or Antibodies. They Are Divided By The Amino Acid Sequence Of Their Heavy Chains Into Five Classes Or Immunoglobulin A; Immunoglobulin D; Immunoglobulin E; Immunoglobulin G; Immunoglobulin M And Various Subclasses.
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived Antibodies Obtained From A Single Clone Of Cells Grown In Mice Or Rats.
Glycoproteins Conjugated Protein-Carbohydrate Compounds Including Mucins, Mucoid, And Amyloid Glycoproteins.
Vaccination Administration Of Vaccines To Stimulate The Host’S Immune Response. This Includes Any Preparation Intended For Active Immunological Prophylaxis.
Time Factors Elements Of Limited Time Intervals, Contributing To Particular Results Or Situations.
Hepatitis B Antibodies Antibodies To The Hepatitis B Antigens, Including Antibodies To The Surface Or Australia And Core Of The Dane Particle And Those To The “E” Antigens.
Immunodiffusion Technique Involving The Diffusion Of Antigen Or Antibody Through A Semisolid Medium, Usually Agar Or Agarose Gel, With The Result Being A Precipitin Reaction.
Sensitivity and Specificity Binary Classification Measures To Assess Test Results. Sensitivity Or Recall Rate Is The Proportion Of True Positives. Specificity Is The Probability Of Correctly Determining The Absence Of A Condition. Or From Last, Dictionary Of Epidemiology, 2D Ed
Binding, Competitive The Interaction Of Two Or More Substrates Or Ligands With The Same Binding Site. The Displacement Of One By The Other Is Used In Quantitative And Selective Affinity Measurements.
Peptide Fragments Partial Proteins Formed By Partial Hydrolysis Of Complete Proteins Or Generated Through Protein Engineering Techniques.
Immunity, Maternally-Acquired Resistance To A Disease-Causing Agent Induced By The Introduction Of Maternal Immunity Into The Fetus By Transplacental Transfer Or Into The Neonate Through Colostrum And Milk.
Insulin Antibodies Antibodies Specific To Insulin.
Complement System Proteins Serum Glycoproteins Participating In The Host Defense Mechanism Of Complement Activation That Creates The Complement Membrane Attack Complex. Included Are Glycoproteins In The Various Pathways Of Complement Activation Or Classical Complement Pathway; Alternative Complement Pathway; And Lectin Complement Pathway.
Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic A Chronic, Relapsing, Inflammatory, And Often Febrile Multisystemic Disorder Of Connective Tissue, Characterized Principally By Involvement Of The Skin, Joints, Kidneys, And Serosal Membranes. It Is Of Unknown Etiology, But Is Thought To Represent A Failure Of The Regulatory Mechanisms Of The Autoimmune System. The Disease Is Marked By A Wide Range Of System Dysfunctions, An Elevated Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate, And The Formation Of Le Cells In The Blood Or Bone Marrow.
Spleen An Encapsulated Lymphatic Organ Through Which Venous Blood Filters.
Autoantigens Endogenous Tissue Constituents That Have The Ability To Interact With Autoantibodies And Cause An Immune Response.
Mice, Inbred C57BL
Recombinant Fusion Proteins Recombinant Proteins Produced By The Genetic Translation Of Fused Genes Formed By The Combination Of Nucleic Acid Regulatory Sequences Of One Or More Genes With The Protein Coding Sequences Of One Or More Genes.
Precipitin Tests Serologic Tests In Which A Positive Reaction Manifested By Visible Chemical Precipitation Occurs When A Soluble Antigen Reacts With Its Precipitins, I.E., Antibodies That Can Form A Precipitate.
Species Specificity The Restriction Of A Characteristic Behavior, Anatomical Structure Or Physical System, Such As Immune Response; Metabolic Response, Or Gene Or Gene Variant To The Members Of One Species. It Refers To That Property Which Differentiates One Species From Another But It Is Also Used For Phylogenetic Levels Higher Or Lower Than The Species.
Antigens, Protozoan Any Part Or Derivative Of Any Protozoan That Elicits Immunity; Malaria Or Plasmodium And Trypanosome Antigens Are Presently The Most Frequently Encountered.
Peptides Members Of The Class Of Compounds Composed Of Amino Acids Joined Together By Peptide Bonds Between Adjacent Amino Acids Into Linear, Branched Or Cyclical Structures. Oligopeptides Are Composed Of Approximately 2-12 Amino Acids. Polypeptides Are Composed Of Approximately 13 Or More Amino Acids. Proteins Are Linear Polypeptides That Are Normally Synthesized On Ribosomes.
Serologic Tests Diagnostic Procedures Involving Immunoglobulin Reactions.
Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity The Phenomenon Of Antibody-Mediated Target Cell Destruction By Non-Sensitized Effector Cells. The Identity Of The Target Cell Varies, But It Must Possess Surface Immunoglobulin G Whose Fc Portion Is Intact. The Effector Cell Is A “Killer” Cell Possessing Fc Receptors. It May Be A Lymphocyte Lacking Conventional B- Or T-Cell Markers, Or A Monocyte, Macrophage, Or Polynuclear Leukocyte, Depending On The Identity Of The Target Cell. The Reaction Is Complement-Independent.
Single-Domain Antibodies An Immunoglobulin Fragment Composed Of One Variable Domain From An Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Or Immunoglobulin Light Chain.
Polysaccharides, Bacterial Polysaccharides Found In Bacteria And In Capsules Thereof.
Kinetics The Rate Dynamics In Chemical Or Physical Systems.
Chromatography, Affinity A Chromatographic Technique That Utilizes The Ability Of Biological Molecules To Bind To Certain Ligands Specifically And Reversibly. It Is Used In Protein Biochemistry. Or Mcgraw-Hill Dictionary Of Scientific And Technical Terms, 4Th Ed
Iodine Radioisotopes Unstable Isotopes Of Iodine That Decay Or Disintegrate Emitting Radiation. I Atoms With Atomic Weights 117-139, Except I 127, Are Radioactive Iodine Isotopes.
Bacterial Vaccines Suspensions Of Attenuated Or Killed Bacteria Administered For The Prevention Or Treatment Of Infectious Bacterial Disease.
Cloning, Molecular The Insertion Of Recombinant Dna Molecules From Prokaryotic And/Or Eukaryotic Sources Into A Replicating Vehicle, Such As A Plasmid Or Virus Vector, And The Introduction Of The Resultant Hybrid Molecules Into Recipient Cells Without Altering The Viability Of Those Cells.
Mice, Inbred Strains Genetically Identical Individuals Developed From Brother And Sister Matings Which Have Been Carried Out For Twenty Or More Generations, Or By Parent X Offspring Matings Carried Out With Certain Restrictions. All Animals Within An Inbred Strain Trace Back To A Common Ancestor In The Twentieth Generation.
Protein Binding The Process In Which Substances, Either Endogenous Or Exogenous, Bind To Proteins, Peptides, Enzymes, Protein Precursors, Or Allied Compounds. Specific Protein-Binding Measures Are Often Used As Assays In Diagnostic Assessments.
Immunochemistry Field Of Chemistry That Pertains To Immunological Phenomena And The Study Of Chemical Reactions Related To Antigen Stimulation Of Tissues. It Includes Physicochemical Interactions Between Antigens And Antibodies.
Viral Envelope Proteins Layers Of Protein Which Surround The Capsid In Animal Viruses With Tubular Nucleocapsids. The Envelope Consists Of An Inner Layer Of Lipids And Virus Specified Proteins Also Called Membrane Or Matrix Proteins. The Outer Layer Consists Of One Or More Types Of Morphological Subunits Called Peplomers Which Project From The Viral Envelope; This Layer Always Consists Of Glycoproteins.
Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains The Largest Of Polypeptide Chains Comprising Immunoglobulins. They Contain 450 To 600 Amino Acid Residues Per Chain, And Have Molecular Weights Of 51-72 Kda.
Tissue Distribution Accumulation Of A Drug Or Chemical Substance In Various Organs Or Including Those Not Relevant To Its Pharmacologic Or Therapeutic Action. This Distribution Depends On The Blood Flow Or Perfusion Rate Of The Organ, The Ability Of The Drug To Penetrate Organ Membranes, Tissue Specificity, Protein Binding. The Distribution Is Usually Expressed As Tissue To Plasma Ratios.
Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic A Specific Immune Response Elicited By A Specific Dose Of An Immunologically Active Substance Or Cell In An Organism, Tissue, Or Cell.
Autoimmune Diseases Disorders That Are Characterized By The Production Of Antibodies That React With Host Tissues Or Immune Effector Cells That Are Autoreactive To Endogenous Peptides.
Antigens, CD Differentiation Antigens Residing On Mammalian Leukocytes. Cd Stands For Cluster Of Differentiation, Which Refers To Groups Of Monoclonal Antibodies That Show Similar Reactivity With Certain Subpopulations Of Antigens Of A Particular Lineage Or Differentiation Stage. The Subpopulations Of Antigens Are Also Known By The Same Cd Designation.
Tumor Cells, Cultured Cells Grown In Vitro From Neoplastic Tissue. If They Can Be Established As A Tumor Cell Line, They Can Be Propagated In Cell Culture Indefinitely.
Membrane Glycoproteins Glycoproteins Found On The Membrane Or Surface Of Cells.
Membrane Proteins Proteins Which Are Found In Membranes Including Cellular And Intracellular Membranes. They Consist Of Two Types, Peripheral And Integral Proteins. They Include Most Membrane-Associated Enzymes, Antigenic Proteins, Transport Proteins, And Drug, Hormone, And Lectin Receptors.
Radioimmunotherapy Radiotherapy Where Cytotoxic Radionuclides Are Linked To Antibodies In Order To Deliver Toxins Directly To Tumor Targets. Therapy With Targeted Radiation Rather Than Antibody-Targeted Toxins Or Immunotoxins Has The Advantage That Adjacent Tumor Cells, Which Lack The Appropriate Antigenic Determinants, Can Be Destroyed By Radiation Cross-Fire. Radioimmunotherapy Is Sometimes Called Targeted Radiotherapy, But This Latter Term Can Also Refer To Radionuclides Linked To Non-Immune Molecules Or See Radiotherapy.
Lymphocyte Activation Morphologic Alteration Of Small B Lymphocytes Or T Lymphocytes In Culture Into Large Blast-Like Cells Able To Synthesize Dna And Rna And To Divide Mitotically. It Is Induced By Interleukins; Mitogens Such As Phytohemagglutinins, And By Specific Antigens. It May Also Occur In Vivo As In Graft Rejection.
Erythrocytes Red Blood Cells. Mature Erythrocytes Are Non-Nucleated, Biconcave Disks Containing Hemoglobin Whose Function Is To Transport Oxygen.
Viral Vaccines Suspensions Of Attenuated Or Killed Viruses Administered For The Prevention Or Treatment Of Infectious Viral Disease.
Lymphocytes White Blood Cells Formed In The Body’S Lymphoid Tissue. The Nucleus Is Round Or Ovoid With Coarse, Irregularly Clumped Chromatin While The Cytoplasm Is Typically Pale Blue With Azurophilic Or If Any Granules. Most Lymphocytes Can Be Classified As Either T Or B Or With Subpopulations Of Each, Or Natural Killer Cells.
Immunoelectrophoresis A Technique That Combines Protein Electrophoresis And Double Immunodiffusion. In This Procedure Proteins Are First Separated By Gel Electrophoresis Or Usually Agarose, Then Made Visible By Immunodiffusion Of Specific Antibodies. A Distinct Elliptical Precipitin Arc Results For Each Protein Detectable By The Antisera.
Microscopy, Electron Microscopy Using An Electron Beam, Instead Of Light, To Visualize The Sample, Thereby Allowing Much Greater Magnification. The Interactions Of Electrons With Specimens Are Used To Provide Information About The Fine Structure Of That Specimen. In Transmission Electron Microscopy The Reactions Of The Electrons That Are Transmitted Through The Specimen Are Imaged. In Scanning Electron Microscopy An Electron Beam Falls At A Non-Normal Angle On The Specimen And The Image Is Derived From The Reactions Occurring Above The Plane Of The Specimen.
Immunoglobulin E An Immunoglobulin Associated With Mast Cells. Overexpression Has Been Associated With Allergic Hypersensitivity Or Hyp